PAN Seminar: Finding Structure in the Speed of Sound of Dense Matter
This event is in the past.
2 p.m. to 3 p.m.
666 W. Hancock
Detroit, MI 48201
Speaker: Veronica Dexheimer Strickland (Kent State University)
Abstract: The speed of sound of the matter within neutron stars may contain non-smooth structure related to first- or higher-order phase transitions. We investigate what are the observable consequences of structure in the speed of sound, such as bumps, spikes, step functions, plateaus, and kinks. One of the main consequences is the possibility of ultraheavy neutron stars, mass twins in heavy, and ultraheavy neutron stars. These stars pass all observational and theoretical constraints, including those imposed by recent LIGO/Virgo gravitational-wave observations and NICER x-ray observations. We thoroughly investigate other consequences of this structure in the speed of sound to develop an understanding of how non-smooth features affect astrophysical observables, such as stellar radii, tidal deformability, moment of inertia, and Love number. We show that the slope of the binary Love relations (i.e.~between the tidal deformabilities of binary neutron stars) encodes the rate of change of the nuclear matter speed of sound below three times nuclear saturation density. Twin stars lead to relations that present a signature ''hill'', ''drop'', and ''swoosh'' due to the second stable branch, requiring a new description of the binary love relations.